Get started with Git

Photo by Emma Frances Logan on Unsplash
$ git status
On branch master
No commits yetnothing to commit
  • Regular branches (or main branches): these branches are available permanently in the repository, the naming convention of regular branches is easy and straightforward, we can mention master and develop.
  • Temporary branches (or support branches): these branches are created by team members and they serve a purpose and once purpose fulfilled they can be deleted, we can mention featureand hotfix.

Main branches

  • master: the master branch is the origin, and we consider origin/master to be the main branch where the source code of HEAD always reflects a production-ready state.
  • develop: We consider origin/develop to be the main branch where the source code of HEAD always reflects a state with the latest delivered development changes for the next release. Some would call this the integration branch.

Supporting branches

May branch off from: develop
Must merge back into: develop
Branch naming convention: anything except master, develop, release-*, or hotfix-*
May branch off from: develop
Must merge back into: develop and master
Branch naming convention: release-*
May branch off from: master
Must merge back into: develop and master
Branch naming convention: hotfix-*

Adapting Gitflow to the deployment environment

  • Development: this is the environment in which the developers get to test and see their code running altogether, that’s why use the develop branch.
  • Pre-production: this environment presents the before-production state in which we have a stable tested version of the application, so for this environment, we use one of the release branches.
  • Production: this is also the client environment, is the recent stable version of the application and we only upload make changes in the final phase of the development of a feature or features. We use the master branch for this environment.

Naming conversions of supporting branches

  • We separate the branch’s name from the rest of the naming with a slash (hotfix/, feature/, release/).
  • In the case of features branches, we add the scope of the feature right after the slash for example feature/authentification.
  • In the case of issue tracker software (like mantis), we can add the ID of the issue to the name of the branches of feature or hotfix, for example, hotfix/mantis.7589.
  • We can also use the date as a reference to the release branches as release/YYYY.MM.DD if we have multiple consecutive versions.

The perfect commit

<type>[optional scope]: <description>
  • build: when changes affect the system of build or external dependencies (npm, make, pip … ).
  • ci: when changes concern files and scripts of the continuous integration (Travis, Ansible …).
  • feat: when new functionality is being added.
  • fix: when a bug is being fixed.
  • perf: when performances are being improved.
  • style: changes that improve the code by add no functional or semantic improvement (indentation, spaces, names of variables, comments …).
  • docs: the changes in the documentation of the code (wiki, README …).
  • test: the add or change of tests of the code.

Bonus: Git commands cheat sheet





Software Engineer | Technical Writer | IT Enthusiast

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Aicha Fatrah

Aicha Fatrah

Software Engineer | Technical Writer | IT Enthusiast

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